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GM Andrea

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About GM Andrea

  • Birthday 02/07/1977

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    Castelfranco Veneto, Arzignano, Vicenza, fate un po' voi
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    Storia navale

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  1. Segnalo che quanto pubblicato richiede qualche correzione (poi apportata in sede di pubblicazione), come segue: Pagina 75 didascalia foto d’apertura, diventa. … tra due grandi flotte Pagina 76 la didascalia prima foto in alto diventa: … la macchina cifrante meccanica Hagelin C 38 m della … Pagina 77 colonna 1 riga 8 dal basso: proseguire con il corsivo fino alla fine delle virgolette Pagina 77 colonna 2 riga dall’alto, diventa: … di intercettati raccolti da ... Pagina 81 colonna 1 riga 10 dal basso: giustificata con la s sotto dopo il trattino giu- stificata Pagina 80 colonna 2 penultima riga, diventa: ... dopo che l'11 novembre 1940 un trimotore ... Pagina 81 colonna 2 riga dall’alto: aggiungere una virgola dopo decisiva Pagina 81 riga 8 dall'alto, diventa. ... protestò, senza successo, dall'estate '41 contro questa pratica .. Pagina 81 colonna 2 riga 14 dal basso: originari con la g sotto dopo il trattino ori- ginari Pagina 82 colonna 1 riga 6 dall’alto: qualificazione con la l dopo il trattino qua- lificazione Pagina 82 colonna 1 riga 15 dall’alto, diventa: …a un messaggio italiano, cifrato il 25 con l’Enigma meccanica del Reparto Informazioni … Pagina 82 colonna 2 riga 4 dall’alto: operational con la r dopo il trattino ope- rational Pagina 83 colonna 1 riga dal basso: limitandosi con la dopo il trattino li- mitandosi
  2. Dalla Rivista Marittima del giugno 2020, l'articolo di E. Cernuschi Molto rumore per nulla - La vera storia delle macchine cifranti Hagelin italiane, 1940-1943 Molto rumore per nulla.pdf
  3. Sono lieto di annunciare la pubblicazione, come Supplemento della Rivista Marittima del giugno 2020, di un'opera unica nel suo genere e mai apparsa prima, neppure parzialmente: gli articoli scritti per il "Corriere della Sera" tra il 1939 e il 1942, da corrispondente imbarcato, di Paolo Monelli, grande giornalista italiano e riconosciuto principe della nostra lingua da un altro maestro (e rivale) della penna come Indro Montanelli. I 35 articoli sono commentati uno a uno da Enrico Cernuschi e dal sottoscritto, rivelando (nell'ambito di un quadro generale della Marina italiana del tempo), ciò che all'epoca non poteva essere detto - come i nomi dei protagonisti e le unità coinvolte - e quello che, a quel tempo, non si sapeva. Non mancano articoli dedicati ai sommergibili e ai loro uomini. La celebre figura di Monelli, alpino per definizione e Autore di opere fondamentali come le Scarpe al sole e Roma 1943 (continuamente ristampate anche oggi) è così completata con quella, meno nota, ma per molti aspetti decisiva, del Monelli marinaio, sia pure - come appare in copertina - con le fiamme verdi sulla giubba, oltre che con l'immancabile monocolo (suo marchio di fabbrica) e il berretto di navigazione. L'opera è corredata da un'approfondita biografia di Monelli e da oltre 80 fotografie, in massima parte inedite e molte delle quali risalenti alla Grande Guerra, provenienti dall'archivio dell'Autore; non manca un'ampia trattazione dedicata ai corrispondenti di guerra per la Regia Marina, che videro tra le loro file altri grandi giornalisti e scrittori come Dino Buzzati. Il Supplemento (294 pagine), disponibile solo in versione cartacea e non on line, è a tiratura limitata, ed è destinato agli abbonati, anche da questo mese (qui le norme per l'abbonamento: https://www.marina.difesa.it/media-cultura/editoria/marivista/Pagine/Abbonamento.aspx) Per leggere l'introduzione: https://www.marina.difesa.it/media-cultura/editoria/marivista/Pagine/Supplementi.aspx
  4. Nell'80° anniversario della battaglia di Punta Stilo, e nel ricordo dei combattenti che sotto ogni bandiera vi presero parte, pubblico, su autorizzazione del Direttore e degli Autori, l'articolo di Michele Maria Gaetani ed Enrico Cernuschi La corazzata di vetro, apparso sulla Rivista Marittima del settembre 2018. Allego inoltre i due grafici che appaiono nell'articolo, in formato più leggibile, assieme al grafico originale della relazione del Cavour proveniente dall'USMM e a quello dell'azione della 9^ Squadriglia CCTT. 17.07.21_azione_principale.pdf 17.07.21_azione_principale_con_titolo_e_INGRANDIMENTO.pdf Mappa 1 nuova versione.pdf RM La corazzata di vetro.pdf
  5. GM Andrea

    Per intimo gaudio

    Ci Voleva!
  6. Grazie alla cortesia dello storico statunitense Vincent O'Hara (https://www.vohara.com/), ben noto anche in Europa per i suoi studi sugli aspetti navali della Seconda guerra mondiale, abbiamo potuto fargli una breve intervista per fare il punto sulle sue ricerche e, parallelamente, sull'evoluzione dell'atteggiamento degli studiosi anglosassoni in merito a quelle vicende. Vincent P. O’Hara is an independent scholar and the author, co-author or editor of thirteen works, most recently Torch, Clash of Fleets and Six Victories. He holds a history degree from the University of California, Berkley, and lives in Chula Vista, California. He was the Naval Institute Press Author of the Year in 2015 and represented the United States in the 75th Anniversary conference regarding Operation Torch, sponsored by the Institut National d’Etudes de Stratégie Globale in Algiers, Algeria. Are there any Second World war scholars who have been an importance on you as a naval historian? Samuel E Morison and his History of U.S. Naval Operations in World War II was a strong early influence. I still admire his writing and his ability to communicate the details of naval operations clearly and with passion. I admire the word of Richard Frank, author of Guadalcanal, and more recently, Tower of Skulls. He has an excellent eye for detail, is a clear communicator, and his training as lawyer gives his work a certain kind of precision not usually found in more academic studies. I value Mark Pettie’s work on the Japanese, Stephen McLaughlin on the Russians, John Jordan on the French. There are many people writing good naval history about the Second World War. I think better access to sources of information and better cooperation between historians of different nations--both formally and informally in venues such as Internet forums, has advanced the study of naval history in general. Can you explain your interest in the war in the Mediterranean between 1940 and 1945? An early attraction was the fact that relatively little was available on the subject of the Mediterranean war to a young historian working in California in the 1970s. There were brief synopses in general works and more extensive treatments in British works written by authors like Stephen Roskill, P.K. Kemp, Donald McIntyre, or Andrew Cunningham. Reading these I received the general impression that the Italians were thoroughly intimidated by the British and badly defeated every time they dared to leave port. This made me wonder why the war in North Africa lasted as long as it did. Trying to find the answer to that question encouraged to better understand events in the Mediterranean between 1940-45. An early project of mine, maybe thirty years ago, was working on a description of the Battle of Calabria (Punta Stilo). Nearly every source I had available at the time concluded that the battle established British “morale ascendency” over the Italians. I was puzzled that so many authors reached not only the same conclusion but used the exact same words to express their conclusion. I was more puzzled because I had no idea what morale ascendency meant, how it could be measured, and how so many historians could come to such an identical conclusion when writing about a battle that seemed inconclusive to me according to what they were writing. This was the first time I appreciated the extent and power of the standard British narrative of the Mediterranean war. How has the English-language view of the Regia Marina’s role in the Second World War evolved and do you think your work has played a role in this evolution? There have been works available in English that have offered a more nuanced picture of the Mediterranean naval war starting with the translation of The Struggle for the Mediterranean 1939-1945 by the French admiral Raymond de Belot in 1951 and Naval Institute’s translation and publication of Marc’ Bragadin’s The Italian Navy in World War II in 1957. However, these books had little influence and were drowned out by the mass of histories and memoirs produced in the United Kingdom during the 1950s and onward which were unanimous in advancing the narrative I summarized in my response to the first question. James Sadkovich in his 1994 work The Italian Navy in World War II was the first historian writing in English to offer an unapologetic, even confrontational, revision to this narrative. Another important work in this regard was The Naval War in the Mediterranean 1940-1943 by Jack Greene and Alessandro Massignani. What these works had in common was that the authors were not British and they both used Italian sources. Thus, the point of view was not so Anglo-centric. My work has built upon these beginnings and with each book I publish I find that I am subjected to fewer charges of “pro-Italian bias.” I think that the historiography has reached the point where most (but not all) English-language historians writing today accept that the traditional British narrative of the Mediterranean war was heavily influenced by wartime propaganda, perhaps even by anti-Italian prejudice, an influence that is easy to document in the British Navy of decades past. Nonetheless, the old school still has power. For a recent work that emphatically rejects any revision to the traditional narrative, see British Cruisers Warfare by Alan Raven. My approach has always been to look at facts in their context and to draw my conclusions from those facts. I have never been interested in proving this theory or that. I certainly do not consider my work to be pro- or anti- anything. I am only interested in what happened and why it happened that way. What do you believe are some under-examined aspects of the British Royal Navy and Regia Marina’s participation in World War II? The understanding of what part intelligence played in the campaign is still evolving. Six Victories had the benefit of using the complete set of British ULTRA decryptions and many Italian decryptions and so made the role of intelligence one of its primary areas of inquiry. More work on the evolution of the Regia Marina’s responses to British technological advantages would be helpful, particularly in their conduct of the traffic war, naval aviation, and electronics. I personally have many questions about Italian naval policy during the Parallel War period that I would like to further examine. The entire Parallel War period lacks a fair English language account I also believe that more detail on German - Italian naval cooperation would be helpful. This strikes me as another area that is driven by an outdated narrative based on excessive regard for German methods. I would welcome a study that separates German methods of naval and air/sea warfare from German material resources and takes a more nuanced view of Germany’s contributions to the Mediterranean naval war, both positive and negative. What are some of the narratives about the Mediterranean war that seem particularly persistent and what questions would you like to address in future work? Some what I wrote above also applies to this question. In my dreams I would like to write a six volume history of Italy and Mediterranean naval war. Six Victories could serve as volume three and In Passage Perilous as volume four. There is a persistent disregard for Italian naval policy and how it supported Italian war goals. The question of Italian naval strategy, right or wrong, is often considered in terms of what British or German historians think that strategy should have been rather than what it actually was. A reassessment of Admiral Andrew Cunningham’s actions in the Mediterranean--a better balancing of the victories he won against the defeats he suffered--would be a fruitful topic to study. Just like the British quickly established a narrative about what occurred during the Mediterranean naval war, so to have Italian historians established competing narratives of their own centered around various beliefs and agendas. I think much could be revealed by an impartial assessment of these narratives because I suspect that, like the standard British narrative, they serve to disguise rather than reveal. What about your most recent books? And what about your future programs? I have been pleased by the reviews of Six Victories. I expected my reassessment of the Second Battle of Sirte would have provoked howls and gnashing of teeth because the belief that this battle was a brilliant British victory is an article of faith in the traditional propaganda-driven narrative. In fact, my interpretation has been accepted by every reviewer (to date), American, British, Australian, Canadian, and Chinese. My next work will involve the use of technology at sea by examining six core naval capabilities in terms of their development and use. For example, torpedoes were not an important naval technology until they were paired with the proper platform, submarines, and unleashed against the best target, merchantmen. Or why was German use of electromagnetic technology over two world wars so poor when compared to their opponents. This book will be a co-authored work and while it will not have a focus on the Mediterranean, it will attempt to consider Italy’s use of naval technology in a comparative fashion. What’s your opinion about USA and Italy relationship? The United States has a large Italian population and vigorous Italian cultural influences, especially in the Northeast and West Coast. I think that in general the United States is sympathetic to Italy and Italian culture. I cannot speak to how Italians perceive the United States, but I have found the people of Italy, in my dealings with them, to be fair minded, honest, and respectful.
  7. GM Andrea

    Due recensioni, una svolta

    A seguire, riporto il link (https://www.naval-review.com/book-reviews/six-victories-north-africa-malta-and-the-mediterranean-convoy-war-november-1941-march-1942/) alla recensione pubblicata da poco in The Naval Review, la Rivista Marittima britannica. Vale la pena evidenziare la conclusione, in merito a una rilettura - considerata ormai indispensabile anche Oltremanica - del ruolo di ULTRA e, per converso, dei decrittatori della R. Marina: This, and other examples, leads to the thought that perhaps Ultra’s success has blinded us to the achievements of Axis codebreakers, and that a history comparing the services of the warring nations’ cryptanalysis organisations is now due. Per approfondire: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review/vol66/iss3/9/?utm_source=digital-commons.usnwc.edu%2Fnwc-review%2Fvol66%2Fiss3%2F9&utm_medium=PDF&utm_campaign=PDFCoverPages
  8. GM Andrea

    Due recensioni, una svolta

    Sull'ultimo numero della prestigiosa rivista britannica The Mariner's Mirror è apparsa la recensione, a firma di Derek Law (University of Strathclyde), del volume di Vincent P. O'Hara Six Victories. North Africa, Malta and the Mediterranean Convoy War. November 1941– March 1942, pubblicato nel 2019 dall'altrettanto blasonato Naval Institute. La recensione, il cui testo riporto a seguire, va segnalata in quanto comprova che anche la pubblicistica specializzata britannica di tale livello inizia a porsi dei dubbi - in particolare nei passi in grassetto - su una visione agiografica della Seconda Guerra Mondiale nel Mediterraneo From 1940 to 1943 the Mediterranean was a key theatre of operations where two conflicting logistical needs intersected. For the Axis the capacity of their land forces to operate in North Africa depended on their ability to run supply convoys from Italy to Libya. For the Allies, the ability to sustain Malta as an offensive base and run men and materials past Gibraltar and Malta and on to Suez and Alexandria was equally essential. This work critically examines how the balance of power swung both ways in the winter of 1941–2 and in particular considers how tactical victory, or at least stalemate, in sea battles could be followed by the loss of strategic initiative. O’Hara is the author of 11 works, with a particular interest in the Mediterranean in theSecond World War. His great strength is an unerring eye for detail and an unbiased view of all the available evidence, notably from Italian as well as British sources. Rather than select the evidence to support a particular case, O’Hara assembles all the evidence then draws conclusions. That accumulated body of evidence and a clear focus on strategy, logistics and intelligence, coupled with an inter-service view of the theatre rather than a purely naval one, offers a quite revisionist perspective on the Mediterranean war and in this particular case concludes that the Second battle of Sirte was a defeat for the Allies rather than the often proclaimed victory. This triumph of Axis sea power initiated a period of Axis domination in the central Mediterranean. In November 1941 the Royal Navy had clear maritime superiority there. The arrival of Force K in Malta in late October led to substantial losses of Italian supply ships, with half of the Italian merchantmen sailing in November lost or damaged. This is well described, but a series of tables on shipping movements and losses is most telling. That naval success was closely linked to and followed by the success of the land-based Operation Crusader offensive in late November. Matters continued to deteriorate for the Axis both on land and sea until mid- December. But that position was to change literally overnight. British historians have tended to focus on the battles at sea to protect Malta convoys. In this work, these events are coupled with the first battle of Sirte in which the Italians successfully escorted convoys to North Africa with supplies which were essential for the Axis forces in North Africa. However, the real turning point was the disabling of two battleships in Alexandria by frogmen and the near destruction of Forces B and K, consisting of cruisers and destroyers, in a minefield twenty miles from Tripoli. There is an extended account of the second battle of Sirte, traditionally claimed as a great British victory. O’Hara casts rather withering scorn on a series of historians from Stephen Roskill to Correlli Barnett and assembles a wealth of detailed evidence to support his view that the battle was at best a limited tactical success and that the Regia Marina gained a strategic upper hand for the next six months. He enriches this account with a broad strategic overview. Fighting a convoy through to Malta may be seen as a tactical victory, but if the docked merchantmen are then sunk by air attack, the operation as a whole cannot be seen as a success. There is an interesting examination of signals intelligence. While the potential value of information provided by Ultra is clearly recognized, much detail is provided on how long it took for that intelligence to reach the Mediterranean and how much further time was taken to respond militarily, regularly undermining its value. A further strength of the book is coverage of the often overlooked Italian ability to read British codes and to take corrective actions to respond to the approach of British strike forces. But for both sides the general point is that such intelligence is only of value if it is followed by swift decision making on the (re)deployment of forces. Despite the vast amount of detail included in the text, this is a very readable work offering a wealth of new information from British and Italian archives. The book is illustrated with a good but slightly random selection of contemporary photographs. More importantly there are some excellent maps of the major actions and a large number of tables, most notably showing the damage to supply ships on both sides. There is a broad and balanced analysis of the problems the Allied and Axis powers faced in their struggle for maritime supremacy. The book’s integration of operations, logistics and intelligence with detailed descriptions of the many actions in these five months shows the hardest fought period of the Mediterranean war at sea in a different and persuasive light, clearly linking it to the land war in North Africa. Thoroughly recommended.
  9. GM Andrea

    Coronarie e corazzate

    Su autorizzazione della direzione di "Marinai d'Italia", rivista mensile dell'ANMI, allego l'articolo di Enrico Cernuschi "Coronarie e corazzate", pubblicato nel numero di marzo 2020. Verbigrazia Coronarie e corazzate bis.pdf
  10. Su autorizzazione della direzione della Rivista Marittima, si rende disponibile l'articolo Le prede e i trofei della Regia Marina durante la Seconda guerra mondiale, a firma di Enrico Cernuschi e apparso sul numero di febbraio 2020 ora in uscita. Con l'occasione l'Autore (al quale mi unisco) estende i propri auguri ai lettori, sperando che queste poche righe possano divertire, almeno un po', quanti devono trascorrere questa forzata pausa domestica e, ancor più, chi rientra dopo un'attività indispensabile ma resa, oggi, così dura. RM Prede e trofei bis.PDF
  11. GM Andrea

    Pattugliatori Polivalenti D'altura - Ppa (Era Esploratori Tipo Upad)

    Nuntio vobis gaudium magnum: il terzo PPA si chiamerà Raimondo Montecuccoli
  12. GM Andrea

    Auguri Presidente

    Grazie a tutti!
  13. Su autorizzazione della direzione della Rivista Marittima, si rende disponibile l'articolo Il caso Manchester, a firma di Enrico Cernuschi e apparso sul numero di ottobre 2019 ora in uscita. Con l'occasione si riporta il link alla pagina con tutte le informazioni per l'abbonamento al periodo, rivista ufficiale della Marina Militare dal 1868: http://www.marina.difesa.it/media-cultura/editoria/marivista/Pagine/Abbonamento.aspx RM.pdf
  14. Su iniziativa dell'ANMI il prossimo 25 ottobre alle ore 17.00 avrà luogo a Fano, nella Mediateca Montanari in Piazza Pier Maria Amiani, la conferenza di Enrico Cernuschi intitolata "Dieci bugie per una sola verità. La Royal Navy e la Regia Marina durante la Seconda guerra mondiale". Chi ne ha la possibilità non perda l'occasione
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